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Graemontia

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Graemontia
Graemontia viridiceps Kury 2006
Graemontia viridiceps Kury, 2006 from original description [1]

Suborder

Laniatores

Superfamily

Triaenonychoidea

Family

Triaenonychidae

Subfamily

Triaenonychinae

Graemontia Staręga, 1992 is a genus of Triaenonychinae with 7 species, from South Africa.

AuthorshipEdit

Lawrence (1931) [2] originally included two species in Graemontia, but did not choose any of them as a type (nor did Kauri(1961)[3]). The generic name was then unavailable because failed to comply with ICZN 13.3 (see below). Staręga’s (1992)[4] action of choosing one of them as the type first made Graemontia available because this complied with 13.1.2 and 13.3. Relevant provisions from ICZN article 13 are: To be available, every new genus-group name published after 1930 must (13.1.1) be accompanied by a description or definition OR (13.1.2) be accompanied by a bibliographic reference to such a published statement AND (13.3) be accompanied by the fixation of a type species in the original publication. As Staręga’s name is published before 2000, it does not have to meet the article (16.1): Every new name published after 1999 must be explicitly indicated as intentionally new.[5].

DistributionEdit

The species of Laniatores in South Africa occur along the arch of thicket/forest/fynbos (corresponding to WWF ecoregions of Montane Shrubland, Mediterranean Forest and Tropical Moist Broadleaf Forest; http://worldwildlife.org/science/ecoregions/afrotropic.cfm) that extends clockwise from Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga through KwaZulu-Natal to the Eastern Cape and Western Cape (much of which is interspersed within savanna), excluding the grassland formations in Gauteng, North West Province and the Free State and the xeric formations of the Northern Cape.[1] The species of Graemontia follow exactly this pattern, with marked allopatry, each species endemic to a separate area, without overlapping [1] (Figure 1).

Distribution of Graemontia by Kury 2006

Fig. 1.South Africa, showing the geographic distribution of the species of Graemontia also relative to the vegetation. Figure by Kury (2006)[1]).

RelationshipsEdit

The genus may be more related to Triaenobuninae than to other Triaenonychinae, although the former subfamily is not officially present in South Africa.[1] Some of the features the genus may share with Triaenobuninae: 1) the strong armature of the frontal border of the carapace, 2) the heavy ventral and dorsal spination of leg I, 3) the shape of the ventral plate and 4) the deeply cleft dorsal plate of the penis, divided in two valves.[1] More studies regarding the male genitalia and the relationships within Triaenonychidae are needed to enlighten the subject.[1]

Type speciesEdit

Graemontia bifidens Lawrence, 1931

SpeciesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Kury, A.B. (2006) A new species of Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, from the Western Cape, South Africa, with notes on the relationships of the genus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Triaenonychidae). African Zoology 41(1): 45–50.
  2. Lawrence, R.F. (1931) The Harvest-Spiders (Opiliones) of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum, Cape Town, 29(2), 341–508.
  3. Kauri, H. (1961) Opiliones. Pp. 9–197. In South African Animal Life. Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951. (B. Hanström, P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck, eds.), Volume 8. Almquist & Wiksell, Uppsala
  4. Staręga, W. (1992) An annotated check-list of harvestmen, excluding Phalangiidae, of the Afrotropical Region (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, 33(2), 271–336.
  5. Mendes, A.C. & Kury, A.B. (2008) Intercontinental Triaenonychidae—the case of Ceratomontia (Opiliones, Insidiatores). The Journal of Arachnology 36:273–279.

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