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Heteropachylinae
Magnispina by Glauco
Heteropachylinae: Magnispina neptunus Mendes, 2011 male, Brazil - from Laboratory of arthropod behavior and evolution. Copyright © Glauco Machado

Suborder

Laniatores

Superfamily

Gonyleptoidea

Family

Gonyleptidae


Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994 [1] is a subfamily of Gonyleptidae, Opiliones, Grassatores), with 12 species. The main diagnostic character of the subfamily is the fusion of two or even all the three free tergites to the dorsal scutum in males, a unique case in Gonyleptidae . The presence of a median apophysis in free tergite II is also a synapomorphy of this subfamily.

Taxonomic historyEdit

This subfamily was proposed by Kury (1994) as an early lineage of Gonyleptidae [1]. In this same study, Cobaniinae and Metasarcinae were also newly proposed. Before the erection of Heteropachylinae, its species were spread in different subfamilies of Gonyleptidae or Phalangodidae . Mendes (2011)[2] revised the group, tested its monophyly and proposed the first phylogenetic hypothesis for its taxa , making many nomenclatural acts congruent to this hypothesis . Gueratto, Mendes & Pinto-da-Rocha, (2017) [3] described two further species of Magnispina, added both to Mendes's matrix, and modified some characters to fit current hypothesis of homology of macrosetae in penis of Gonyleptoidea [4]. The analysis is very similar to Mendes's with minor changes, and corroborated the monophyly of the subfamily and its three genera.

DistributionEdit

Atlantic Forests, mainly in Northeast of Brazil

Included generaEdit

Magnispina Mendes, 2011

Heteropachylus Roewer, 1913

Pseudopucrolia Roewer, 1912

Identification key genera and speciesEdit

See Gueratto, Mendes & Pinto-da-Rocha (2017)[3] for an updated version of this key including the species Magnispina bahiana and Magnispina robusta.

Key from Mendes [2], based on males:
1
  • Three mesotergal areas...2
2(1)
  • Free tergite III with a longitudinal keel femur IV slightly curved in dorsal view and straight in lateral view, without dorsobasal apophysis and prolateral margin with row of rounded tubercles increasing progressively towards the apex of the femur (Pseudopucrolia)...3
  • Free tergite III without a longitudinal keel; femur IV distinctly curved in dorsal view and with two curvatures (‘S-shaped’) in lateral view , with dorsobasal apophysis  and prolateral margin with other structure of ornamentation...6
3(2)
  • Median apophysis of free tergite II with length comparable to the tergite length or absent; free tergite III with an apophysis or tubercle on each corner (protuberant corners); posterior border of free tergite III slightly convex...4
  • Median apophysis of free tergite II robust, at least double the tergite length (Fig. 5A, E); free tergite I without armature on corners; posterior border of free tergite III distinctly convex... Pseudopucrolia incerta
4(3)
  • Dorsal surface of the body not covered by dark granules at high density; median armature of free tergite II present...5
  • Dorsal surface of the body covered by dark granules at high density; median armature of free tergite II mostly absent, sometimes present but very reduced in size...Pseudopucrolia rugosa
5(4)
  • Calcaneus I less than half the length of the metatarsus; femur IV without conspicuous medial apophysis in the main dorsal row of tubercles...Pseudopucrolia mutica
  • Calcaneus I about half of the length of the metatarsus; femur IV with conspicuous medial apophysis in the main dorsal row of tubercles...Pseudopucrolia discrepans
6(2)
  • Mesotergal area III with a pair of tubercles; median apophysis of free tergite II robust, at least twice the tergite length...Magnispina neptunus
  • Mesotergal area III with unpaired armature; free tergite II bearing a median apophysis with length comparable to the tergite length (Heteropachylus - part)...7
7(6)
  • Mesotergal area I entire, without longitudinal division; mesotergal area II without conspicuous pair of paramedian granules; groove between mesotergal areas II and III incomplete; median armature of free tergite III absent...Heteropachylus ramphonotus
  • Mesotergal area I divided in left and right halves by a median longitudinal groove; mesotergal area II with pair of paramedian granules larger than the others; groove between mesotergal areas II and III complete; median armature of free tergite III present...Heteropachylus crassicalcanei
8(1)
  • Eye mound armature absent; mesotergal area III with one tubercle or spine; free tergite III without median armature and without protuberant corners...9
  • Eye mound armature present; mesotergal area III with pair of tubercles or spines; free tergite III with median armature and protuberant corners...10
9(8)
  • Free tergites I–III fused to the dorsal scutum; free tergite II without an apophysis or tubercle on each corner and median apophysis of free tergite II square-shaped...Heteropachylus inexpectabilis
  • Free tergites I–II fused to the dorsal scutum; free tergite II with armature in the corners (protuberant corners) and median apophysis of free tergite II conical...Heteropachylus gracilis
10(8)
  • Mesotergal area IV divided, with a longitudinal groove present, forming right and left halves; without robust dorsodistal apophysis in femur IV...Heteropachylus spiniger
  • Mesotergal area IV entire, without the longitudinal groove; robust dorsodistal apophysis in femur IV...Heteropachylus peracchii

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kury, A.B. (1994) Early lineages of Gonyleptidae (Arachnida Opiliones Laniatores). Tropical Zoology 7(2), 342–353.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mendes, A.C. (2011) Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Heteropachylinae (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163, 437–483. Get the PDF .
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gueratto, C., Mendes, AC & Pinto-da-Rocha, R. (2017).Description of two new species of Magnispina and a new hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships for Heteropachylinae (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptidae). Zootaxa 4300: 2, 180-194. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4300.2.2
  4. Kury A.B. & Villarreal M.O. (2015) The prickly blade mapped: establishing homologies and a chaetotaxy for macrosetae of penis ventral plate in Gonyleptoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 174(1), 1–46. DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12225

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