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UNICOS Project

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Pages from Cuvier 1795 Le Faucheux a 4–dentelures BHL

One of the oldest Opiliones species illustrated: Le Faucheux a 4–dentelures or UNICOS 00026 (by Cuvier 1795)

The UNICOS Project (Identification of Opiliones by Unique Numbers in Chronological Sequence) was created by A.B. Kury aiming to assign to each available specific name of Opiliones, valid or not, a unique number based on the chronological order of description. This allows unequivocal reference to a given species name, regardless of how many synonymies and combinations have been made afterwards. The first step of this project was given with the publication of 1st part of Opilionological Record (Kury 2010) [1], which covered from 1758 to 1804.

Criteria for inclusionEdit

1) Species was originally described in Opiliones or later transferred to Opiliones;
2) Species was described in genus Phalangium at a time when this genus was equivalent to Opiliones;

CaveatEdit

Many fossil organisms (even plants) have been mistakenly described as Opiliones and only years later removed from the order. These also receive a UNICOS number. In the early years of Linnean taxonomy, when the order Opiliones was not yet defined, some other arthropods were described in the genus Phalangium. These also receive a UNICOS number.

All the 8 cases of recent non-Opiliones (Amblypygi, Pseudoscorpiones, Thelyphonida) described as PhalangiumEdit

Linnaeus 1758Edit

  • Acarus cancroides Linnaeus 1758 -- Pseudoscorpiones; transferred to Chelifer by Geoffroy (1762: 618), but this was ignored by subsequent authors, although it is the current combination; also transferred to Phalangium by Linnaeus (1767: 1028). Finally entered into the synonymy of Chelifer scorpioides by Hagen (1867: 325). Valid combination today is Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1758).
  • Phalangium caudatum Linnaeus 1758 -- Thelyphonida; transferred to Phrynus by Olivier 1791: 461.
  • Phalangium reniforme Linnaeus 1758 -- Amblypygi; transferred to Phrynus by Olivier 1791: 461.

Linnaeus 1767Edit

  • Phalangium acaroides Linnaeus 1767 -- Pseudoscorpiones; synonymized with Acarus scorpioides Linnaeus 1758 by Hagen (1867: 325).
  • Phalangium grossipes Linnaeus 1767 -- Pycnogonida; transferred to Nymphon by Fabricius (1794: 217).
  • Phalangium balaenarum Linnaeus 1767 -- Pycnogonida; synonymized with Phalangium litorale Ström 1762 by Fabricius (1780: 233).

Pallas 1772Edit

  • Phalangium lunatum Pallas 1772 -- Amblypygi; transferred to Phrynus by Olivier 1791: 461.
  • Phalangium araneoides Pallas 1772 -- Solifugae; transferred to Galeodes by Olivier 1791: 579.

Lichtenstein & Herbst 1797Edit

  • The species of Phalangium described in this work are not taken into consideration here because Phalangium was explicitly regarded as different (corresponding to present day Amblypygi) from the Opiliones, which were all combined in the genus Opilio in the parts 2 and 3 of the same work (Herbst 1798 and 1799).

How many digitsEdit

Considering that the number of VALID species of Opiliones is ca. 6,500, and that we may estimate the number of available specific names in something between 15,000-20,000, five digits are completely sufficient for the project, allowing a maximum of 100,000 unique IDs.

Unique ID numbers for species of OpilionesEdit

An attempt has been made to include up-to-date status on these species, although this is not necessary for assigning a UNICOS number.

00001. Acarus cancroides Linnaeus 1758 - not Opiliones
00002. Phalangium opilio Linnaeus 1758 - valid
00003. Phalangium caudatum Linnaeus 1758 - not Opiliones
00004. Phalangium reniforme Linnaeus 1758 - not Opiliones
00005. Acarus nepaeformis Scopoli 1763 - valid
00006. Phalangium cornutum Linnaeus 1767 - synonym
00007. Phalangium tricarinatum Linnaeus 1767 - valid
00008. Phalangium acaroides Linnaeus 1767 - not Opiliones
00009. Phalangium grossipes Linnaeus 1767 - not Opiliones
00010. Phalangium balaenarum Linnaeus 1767 - not Opiliones
00011. Phalangium lunatum Pallas 1772 - not Opiliones
00012. Phalangium araneoides Pallas 1772 - not Opiliones
00013. Phalangium bimaculatum Fabricius 1775 - valid
00014. Phalangium lugubre Müller 1776 - valid
00015. Phalangium mucronatum Müller 1776 - valid - nomen dubium
00016. Phalangium parietinum De Geer 1778 - valid
00017. Phalangium diadema Fabricius 1779 - valid
00018. Phalangium morio Fabricius 1779 - valid
00019. Phalangium bilineatum Fabricius 1779 - valid - nomen dubium
00020. Phalangium annulatum Olivier 1791 - valid
00021. Phalangium cristatum Olivier 1791 - valid - nomen dubium
00022. Phalangium spinosum Bosc 1792 - valid
00023. Phalangium bicolor Fabricius 1793 - synonym
00024. Phalangium hellwigii Panzer 1794 - valid
00025. Phalangium horridum Panzer 1794 - valid
00026. Phalangium 4-dentatum Cuvier 1795 - valid
00027. Phalangium histrix Latreille 1798 - synonym
00028. Phalangium palliatum Latreille 1798 - synonym
00029. Phalangium rostratum Latreille 1798 - synonym
00030. Phalangium rotundum Latreille 1798 - valid
00031. Phalangium muscorum Latreille 1798 - valid - nomen dubium
00032. Opilio monocantha Herbst 1798 - valid - nomen dubium
00033. Opilio hispidus Herbst 1798 - synonym
00034. Opilio longipes Herbst 1798 - synonym
00035. Opilio fasciatus Herbst 1798 - synonym
00036. Opilio grossipes Herbst 1799 - synonym
00037. Opilio alpinus Herbst 1799 - synonym
00038. Opilio rupestris Herbst 1799 - valid
00039. Opilio palpinalis Herbst 1799 - valid
00040. Opilio spinosus Herbst 1799 - valid
00041. Opilio triangularis Herbst 1799 - valid
00042. Opilio hemisphaericus Herbst 1799 - synonym
00043. Opilio scaber Herbst 1799 - valid
00044. Siro rubens Latreille 1802 - valid
00045. Phalangium cornigerum Hermann 1804 - synonym
00046. Phalangium melanotarsum Hermann 1804 - synonym
00047. Phalangium spinulosum Hermann 1804 - synonym
00048. Phalangium chrysomelas Hermann 1804 - valid
00049. Phalangium rufum Hermann 1804 - synonym
00050. Phalangium urnigerum Hammer in Hermann 1804 - synonym
00051. Phalangium rubens Hermann 1804 - valid - nomen dubium
00052. Phalangium uncatum Hermann 1804 - valid - nomen dubium
00053. Phalangium copticum Savigny 1816
00054. Gonyleptes horridus Kirby 1819
00055. Gonyleptes aculeatus Kirby 1819
00056. Gonyleptes scaber Kirby 1819
00057. Phalangium vittatum Say 1821
00058. Phalangium nigrum Say 1821
00059. Phalangium dorsatum Say 1821
00060. Phalangium grandis Say 1821
00061. Gonyleptes ornatum Say 1821
00062. Phalangium succineum Presl 1822
00063. Faucheur acanthure Dúmeril 1823
00064. Phalangium acanthopus Quoy & Gaimard 1824
00065. Phalangium savignyi Audouin 1826
00066. Phalangium lupatum Eichwald 1830
00067. Phalangium crassum Dufour 1831
00068. Phalangium lineola Dufour 1831
00069. Phalangium tricuspidatum Dufour 1831
00070. Phalangium crista Brullé 1832
00071. Gonyleptes spinipes Gray 1833
00072. Gonyleptes chilensis Gray 1833

ReferencesEdit

  1. Kury, AB (2010) Opilionological Record – a chronicle of harvestman taxonomy. Part 1: 1758–1804. The Journal of Arachnology, 38(3):521-529.

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